In this lesson we cover the correct use of “e” and “ed” in Italian. This involves looking at the word that follows and then determining whether to add the letter “d”.

Two Main Takeaways

  • The addition of the “euphonic d” depends on whether the word that follows begins with a vowel.
  • The “euphonic d” is added to “a”, “e”, and “o”, giving us “ad”, “ed”, and “od”.

Three Action Steps

  • Listen to the Italian lesson with the player above, on Apple Podcasts, or on Spotify.
  • Download this episode’s printable guide. You can find it here.
  • Take the instant-score quiz below to test your understanding of the lesson.

Links Mentioned and Other Resources

  • CLICK HERE to listen to episode #89: Subject Pronouns in Italian.
  • CLICK HERE to listen to episode #104: “Tu” and “Lei”: Informal and Formal Language.
  • CLICK HERE to get the Irregular Past Participles Learning Map, a guide summarizing the most common irregular past participles in Italian.

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